What is An Assistance Award
There are three types of assistance awards: Grants, Cooperative Agreements, and Technology Investment Agreements (TIAs).
- A grant is defined as the legal instrument reflecting a relationship between the United States Government and a State, a local government, or other recipient when (1)the principal purpose of the relationship is to transfer a thing of value to the State or local government or other recipient to carry out a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States instead of acquiring (by purchase, lease, or barter) property or services for the direct benefit or use of the United States Government; and (2)substantial involvement is not expected between the executive agency and the State, local government, or other recipient when carrying out the activity contemplated in the agreement. [31 U.S. Code § 6304]
- A cooperative agreement is defined as a legal instrument of financial assistance between a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and a non-Federal entity that is used to enter into a relationship where the principal purpose is to transfer anything of value from the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to the non-Federal entity to carry out a public purpose authorized by a law of the United States and not to acquire property or services for the Federal government or pass-through entity's direct benefit or use. A cooperative agreement is distinguished from a grant in that it provides for substantial involvement between the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and the non-Federal entity in carrying out the activity contemplated by the Federal award. The term does not include: (1) A cooperative research and development agreement as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a; or (2) An agreement that provides only: (i) Direct United States Government cash assistance to an individual; (ii) A subsidy; (iii) A loan; (iv) A loan guarantee; or (v) Insurance. [31 U.S.C. 6302–6305]
- A TIA is defined as a cooperative relationship between the Federal Government and the recipient(s) which require substantial involvement of the Government in the execution of Research Development & Demonstration (RD&D). [10 CFR § 603.220]